Practitioners’ Guide on Damages Awarded for Defamation Cases in Singapore

The Practitioners’ Guide on Damages Awarded for Defamation Cases in Singapore (the “Guide”) serves as a comprehensive resource on the whole spectrum of defamation cases that comes before the Singapore courts and the range of damages awarded for such claims. It provides a useful and concise tabulation of defamation cases organised according to the nature of the defamation, the category of claimant, the amount awarded, and the outcome of appeal as well as case summaries for over a decade of reported and unreported cases filed between 2006 and 2017. The Guide outlines the general legal principles on the tort of defamation in Singapore, making it a quick primer on the law of defamation for anyone with an interest in this area of the law.

Besides the case summaries, it provides a useful reference to the Pre-Action Protocol for Defamation Actions in the State Courts which came into effect on 24 September 2018. The Protocol aims to encourage constructive negotiations with a view to promoting pre-action settlements and keeping parties focused on the key issues in dispute. The Guide takes stock of the legal landscape as it has developed thus far and includes the more recent defamation cases which were not previously available in other local publications on the tort of defamation.


Chapter 1           General Introduction

A.           Overview of defamation law in Singapore

B.           Civil action

C.           Sources of law

D.           Criminal action

Chapter 2           Preliminary Considerations

A.           Parties who can sue

B.           Parties who can be sued

Chapter 3           Commencing an Action

A.           Preliminary matters

B.           Which jurisdiction?

C.           Which court?

D.           Commencement of proceedings

Chapter 4           Elements of Defamation

A.           General principles

B.           Forms of defamatory statements

C.           Establishing a prima facie case of defamation

Chapter 5           Defences

A.           Introduction

B.           Justification

C.           Fair comment

D.           Absolute privilege

E.           Qualified privilege

F.           Offer of amends

G.           Innocent dissemination

H.           Consent to publication

I.             Limitation of actions

Chapter 6           Remedies

A.           General principles

B.           Monetary damages

C.           Injunctions

Chapter 7           Overview of Damages Awarded

A.           Overview

B.           Slander

C.           Libel

Chapter 8           Awards for Slander Cases

A.           Index of awards of slander cases

B.           Case summaries of awards for slander cases

Chapter 9           Awards for Slander and Libel Cases

A.           Index of awards for libel and slander cases

B.           Case summaries of awards for slander and libel cases

Chapter 10         Awards for Libel Cases

A.           Index of awards for libel cases

B.           Case summaries of awards for libel cases (2006–2017)




District Judge Salina Ishak

Contributing Editor

District Judge Clement Julien Tan


District Judge Salina Ishak

District Judge Clement Julien Tan

Peter Lo

Regina Lim

Patrick Tay



Publication Type:


CS Redeemable:


Date of Publication:

Oct 2019

ISBN Code:








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